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13 Symposium Internacional sobre Control biológico de plagas y enfermedades: agentes microbianos y entomófagos
Desarrollo de aplicaciones y protección legal de microorganismos para el control biológico de enfermedades y plagas
E. MONTESINOS

Los principales organismos entomopatógenos y su potencial como insecticidas microbianos
P. CABALLERO

Características y potencial bioinsecticida de los protozoos entomopatógenos
JERZY J. LIPA

Diseño y aplicación de los bioinsecticidas basados en baculovirus
TREVOR WILLIAMS

Presente y futuro de Bacillus thuringiensis en el control de plagas
J. FERRÉ, B. ESCRICHE
The ecological characteristics of bioinsecticides based on the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis favours to extend their use in pest control. With the current trend to reduce chemical insecticides, it is foreseeable that the use of bioinsecticides based on this bacterium will increase in the coming future. Nevertheless, with the wider adoption of transgenic crops by more and more countries, the greater and faster increase in the use of the toxins of this bacterium will take place in planta. The wider adoption of the"Bt-crops" technology will pose a very strong selection pressure on the populations of phytophagous insects, and this could accelerate the evolution of resistance to B. thuringiensis toxins if appropriate measures are not taken.

Utilidad de Borneo® en el manejo integrado de plagas de cítricos, frutales y algodón
PEDRO B. FUCHS, SILVIA HINAREJOS, J. SALTOR, ABEL ZARAGOZA

Utilización de Bacillus thuringiensis en la lucha contra la polilla del racimo de la vid
R. COSCOLLÁ

Los hongos entomopatógenos en el control de las plagas de insectos
E. QUESADA-MORAGA
The use of entomopathogenic fungi for control of insect pests has received an increasing interest in recent years, which is revealed by the number of commercial products available and under development. Fungi are unique and relevant among the insect pathogens in that they infect their host primarily through the integument. Therefore, they provide the only practical means of microbial control for insects feeding by sucking plant juices. Furthermore, the application of entomopathogenic Hyphomycetes provides a new strategy for the control of soil-dwelling insect pests, being some of them frequently isolated from the soil, where they found very optimal conditions for developing their maximum insecticidal activity. The development of commercially viable micoinsecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticides entails several steps, mainly fungal isolation from the environment, strain selection, studies of ecology, physiology and taxonomy, economical mass production, formulation, application strategies, and registration. However, a more efficient exploitation of entomopathogenic fungi in Crop Protection depends mainly on improving their virulence and speed of kill. It is likely that macromolecular insecticidal metabolites produced during the in vivo development of the fungal biocontrol agent, which sometimes are required for disease symptoms and contribute to inactivate the host defences, are the best targets for selecting and developing more effective fungal strains, and constitute by themselves a novel generation of bioinsecticides.

Aproximación al control biológico de plagas y enfermedades de las palmeras por hongos entomopatógenos
L. V. LÓPEZ-LLORCA, L. ASENSIO-BERBEGAL, S. GÓMEZ-VIDAL, T. CARBONELL-CARBONELL, J. SALINAS, J.A. LÓPEZ
We have designed formulations in Phoenix dactylifera seed of Beauveria bassiana as well as Lecanicillium dimorfosporum. These formulates have shown viability and pathogenicity for at least 3 months in both soil and palm leaves. Preliminary results (in the laboratory) show that the entomopathogenic fungi are capable to infect Phoenicococcus marlatti, the red scale insect of palms. This insect is a serious pest affecting date palms in SE Spain and elsewhere. Similar results were found with root eating coleopteran Carpophilus dimidiatus. B. Bassiana was also found to endophyitically colonise date palm tissues. Our results also show that B. Bassiana inhibits the fungal palm pathogen Penicillium vermoesenii.

Estado actual y perspectivas del control biológico de mosca blanca mediante el uso de hongos entomopatógenos en Canarias
A. PADILLA, M. MARTÍN, E. HERNÁNDEZ SUÁREZ, S. AMADOR, A. CARNERO, L. ASENSIO, L. LÓPEZ-LLORCA, C. FERNÁNDEZ

Características de los nematodos entomopatógenos como bioinsecticidas. Selección de especies y ensayos de eficacia
F. GARCÍA DEL PINO

Nematodos entomopatógenos para el control de insectos
RALF-UDO EHLERS

Utilización de microorganismos antagonistas para el control de enfermedades de plantas: factores que influyen sobre la eficacia de biocontrol
RAFAEL M. JIMÉNEZ DÍAZ
Biological control by means of microbial agents is one of the preferred plant disease control strategies to satisfy current social demands of healthy foods and environmental quality in agricultural production. However, biocontrol of plant diseases is still confronted with user’s perception of variability and inconsistency of results. Variability and inconsistency of plant disease biocontrol are consequences of the complex pathogen-plant-microbial agent(s) interactions and of factors influencing these interactions. Soil characteristics such as soil temperature, pH, texture and chemical composition, as well as pathoystem components such as inoculum density and virulence, and host plant genotype are important factors influencing efficacy of plant disease biocontrol. As a consequence, the development of effective strategies for plant disease biocontrol requires that those factors are considered critically, and that biocontrol be conceived as a component of integrated disease management programs. The use of stability analyses for assessing efficacy of biocontrol, and of models relating pathogen inoculum and dose of the microbial agent, are suggested as a mean of enhancing applicability of plant disease biocontrol and improving confidence of users on its efficacy.

Elicitores biológicos de las plantas: beneficios y limitaciones potenciales
PETER KAUL, FÉLIX MARTÍNEZ

Nueva cepa bacteriana biofungicida para el control biológico de podredumbres fúngicas en postcosecha de fruta
E. MONTESINOS, A. BONATERRA, J. MANUEL FRANCÉS, E. BADOSA, J. CABREFIGA, M. MARI

Prospección, selección y ensayos de control biológico del fuego bacteriano mediante bacterias antagonistas
E. MONTESINOS, J. CABREFIGA, A. BONATERRA

Uso de agentes de biocontrol para la implementación de una estrategia de control integrado de la Fusariosis Vascular del garbanzo
B. B. LANDA DEL CASTILLO, J.A. NAVAS CORTÉS, R.M. JIMÉNEZ-DÍAZ

Pseudomonas spp. asociadas a raíces de olivo controlan eficientemente la verticilosis del olivo
J. MERCADO BLANCO, D. RODRÍGUEZ JURADO, A. HERVÁS VARGAS, E. TEJEDOR GONZÁLEZ, R.M. JIMÉNEZ-DÍAZ

Producción, formulación y mejora de bacterias y levaduras para su aplicación en el control biológico de enfermedades
I. VIÑAS, N. TEIXIDÓ, M.I. ABADÍAS, E. COSTA, J. USALL

Control biológico de los tumores causados por Agrobacterium Tumefaciens: treinta años de eficacia basada en el conocimiento del patógeno, del agente de biocontrol y de su interacción
M. LÓPEZ, B. VICEDO, R. PEÑALVER

Control biológico de enfermedades vegetales con hongos antagonistas
P. MELGAREJO, A. DE CAL, I. LARENA, B. GUIJARRO, P. SABUQUILLO, MAR LIÑÁN

Control biológico de Meloidogyne en cultivos hortícolas mediante hongos nematófagos
S. VERDEJO-LUCAS, M. GALEANO, F.J. SORRIBAS, C. ORNAT, L.V. LÓPEZ-LLORCA

La introducción de enemigos naturales exóticos para control biológico: ¿un riesgo controlado?
J.A. JACAS

El control biológico en hortícolas
J.A. SÁNCHEZ

Eretmocerus mundus: control biológico de Bemisia tabaci
A. URBANEJA, J. CALVO, D. BELTRÁN, L. LARA, JAN VAN DER BLOM, PHIL STANSLY

Los depredadores y parasitoides como agentes de control de plagas de cultivos frutícolas
J. AVILLA, D. BOSCH, M.J. SARASÚA
The persistence of the orchard agroecosystem in space and time, and the presence of vegetation within the orchard and in the surroundings favour the establishment of relatively stable prey-predator and host-parasiotid relationships and, hence, successful biological control. On the other hand, the low economic thresholds for some pests make it more difficult. The biological control of European Red Mite (Panonychus ulmi) by phytoseiid mites (mainly Amblyseius andersoni) present in the orchard is well established. The biological control of pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyri) may be done by a complex of parasitoids and predators, but it must always be complemented with cultural measures to avoid the excessive growth of the tree. The conservation and augmentation of the natural enemies of secondary pests (mainly leafrollers and leaf miners) must be always envisaged.

Control biológico de plagas de cítricos
F. GARCÍA-MARÍ
The biological control of pests has a long tradition in Citrus crops. Many parasitoid and predator species live in the citrus orchards, regulating with efficacy the populations of many phytophagous insects. The three procedures usually recognized in biological control, introduction, increment and conservation of natural enemies, have been applied successfully. The continuous introduction of new pests has led to the implementation of several programs of classical biological control by importation of beneficial arthropods into our country. The use of mass releases of beneficials and the conservation techniques are analysed, with emphasis in the selection of pesticides for their impact on natural enemies.

Uso conjunto de enemigos naturales y plaguicidas: necesidad de establecer la compatibilidad de los plaguicidas
E. VIÑUELA
In the last years, all the developed countries have expressed their concern about the quality of the current productive systems, and about the environmental impact of pesticides. Accordingly, present trends in agriculture in the European Union Countries (UE) are focusing on the adaptation of traditional productive systems to those of sustainable agriculture, having as objective the production of enough amounts of high quality foods and fibers, but in a socially and profitable way and without harming the environment.
Crop Protection is an essential part of productive systems and the current objectives in the UE are: to decrease the use of conventional pesticides and to expand the use of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) techniques. Modern trends in IPM worlwide, are focusing on the joint use of pesticides and beneficial organisms, because it is well known that natural enemies play a key role in agricultural ecosystems, helping to maintaining pest populations densities at values much lower than those reached when they are not present. However, the joint use of pesticides and beneficial organisms has a problem: enemies are usually much more affected by treatments than pests. Therefore, a previous and essential step for succeeding on their joint use, is to ascertain the side-effects of pesticides on them.
There are two kinds of studies: those aiming at producing information for IPM, and those aiming at getting pesticide registration in the EU.
In Europe, the pioneer organization on the study of side-effects of pesticides on enemies, has been the IOBC. Its working group Pesticides and beneficial organisms started its activities as early as 1974, with the objective of giving support to IPM throught the identification and correct use of pesticides, which are compatible with natural enemies. Since, then more than 30 standard methods to measure side-effects on enemies (arthropods, nematodes and fungi) has been developed, and more than 160 pesticides have been evaluated in different enemies.
IOBC recommends to test side-effects of pesticides on 4 representative enemies per crop. Its standard methods are sequential: they start on the lab with the exposure of enemies to fresh pesticide residues using cages where exposure is maximum, use commercials and the maximum field rates, and test both the most protected and the most exposed life stages of enemies (inside parasitized hosts and adults for parasitoids, and adults and larvae or nymphs, for predators); follow with extended semi-field studies using plants.
Apart from this standard methods where enemies are exposed to residues, there are many other studies to be done in the lab to totally ascertain the toxic effects of pesticides on beneficials. Among the possible studies are the influence of: other exposure methods (ingestion, contamination vía the food chain, topical application); of different doses, of different formulations (especially for botanical pesticides), and so on. Moreover, more basic studies can also be done to advance on the knowledge of the mode of action of new pesticides, for example using electron microscopy of 14C- pesticides.
Ecotoxicological studies for registration purposes in the UE, are compulsory since the directive 91/414/CEE dealing with the commercialization of pesticides in the member countries came into force. This studies follow at present a guidance document and have important differences with the IOBC. Ther general principles are as follow: studies also start in the lab, but using two indicator species, the braconid Aphidius rhopalosiphi De Stephani-Pérez and the phytoseiid Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten; enemies are exposed to fresh residues of commercials on glass plates; hazard quotients in-field and off-field have to be calculated, where lethal fifty responses (LR50) are considered; mitigation measures can be applied before performing higher tiers; in higher tiers, a non-sequential scheme can be followed performing experiments in semi-field, field, extended laboratory, and so on; in higher tier

Efecto de las aplicaciones de nematodos entomopatógenos para el control de la mosca del mediterráneo
R. LABORDA, L. BARGUES, E. MONTORO, E. LLOPIS, O. BARAJAS, M. ARROYO, A. MARTÍNEZ, J.M. SAYAGUÉZ, E.M. GARCÍA

Control biológico del Gusano cabezudo (Capnodis tenebrionis) mediante la aplicación de “Biorend R” (formulado a base de nematodos entomopatógenos + quitosano)
E. MONTORO, O. BARAJAS, M. ARROYO, A. MARTÍNEZ, P. LLOPIS, E.M. GARCÍA, J.M. SAYAGUÉZ

Efecto del Tinopal UPNA sobre la infectividad, productividad y estabilidad genética del nucleopoliedrovirus de Spodoptera exigua
R. MURILLO, R. LASA, TREVOR WILLIAMS, D. MUÑOZ, P. CABALLERO, D. GOULSON

Efectos de un abrillantador óptico sobre la aparición de resistencia al SfMNPV y los efectos subletales en Spodoptera frugiperda
A. M. MARTÍNEZ, M. VILLANUEVA, N. MIRALLES, I. SAN MARTÍN, TREVOR WILLIAMS, P. CABALLERO

b-Exotoxina de Bacillus thurigiensis: ¿bioinsecticida o metabolito no deseable?
C.S. HERNÁNDEZ, J. FERRÉ, C. MARTÍNEZ, M. PORCAR, P. CABALLERO

Uso de Bacillus thuringiensis en el control de plagas del algodón
J. GONZÁLEZ-CABRER, J. FERRÉ, A. ESTELA, B. ESCRICHE

Pruebas de control microbiológico y químico del escarabajo de la patata, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), en Italia Central
A.F. SPANEDDA, C. PUCCI

Desarrollo de un nuevo bioinsecticida para el control de mosca blanca: Ensayos preliminares de eficacia bajo condiciones de laboratorio
C. ORNAT, X. SORRIBAS, R. GERGER, M. GRIFOLL, C. FERNÁNDEZ

Aproximaciones al control biológico de plagas de las palmeras datileras
L. ASENSIO-BERBEGAL, S. GÓMEZ-VIDAL, T. CARBONELL-CARBONELL, L.V. LÓPEZ-LLORCA

Desarrollo de un formulado comercial a base de Beuveria bassiana para el control de insectos de interés agrícola
C. SANTIAGO, E. QUESADA, E. ARAUJO, P. VALVERDE, F. ROMÁN, M. CHAVES, A. RODRÍGUEZ

Detección de Beauveria bassaiana en Xylotrechus arvicola Ol. Perspectivas sobre su utilidad
A. GARCÍA CALLEJA, R. SÁNCHEZ URRACA

Evaluación de la virulencia de dos cepas autóctonas y una comercial del hongo entomopatógeno Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) en larvas de Galleria mellonella (L.) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae)
S. SPERANZA, C. PUCCI, P.H. PIZZUOLO

Producción de nematodos (entomopatógenos) en cultivo líquido
RALF-UDO EHLERS, ARNE PETERS

Proteína verde fluorescente aplicada al estudio in situ de la localización y actividad de células bacterianas en la rizosfera
C. RAMOS

Antagonismo de aislados bacterianos de suelo de bosque y formulados comerciales de biocontrol frente a Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands
P. DOMÍNGUEZ CORREA, S. GONZÁLEZ GONZÁLEZ, A. RODRÍGUEZ PÉREZ, L. GALLO LLOBET, F. SIVERIO DE LA ROSA

Evaluación in vitro de hongos micoparásitos y bacterias antagonistas para el control del oídio de cucurbitáceas
D. ROMERO, F.M CAZORLA, A PÉREZ-GARCÍA, A. DE VICENTE, M.E. RIVERA

Interacciones in vitro entre Trichoderma harzianum y Fusarium oxysporum fsp. lycopersici
M.P. SANTAMARINA, C. ASENSI, J. ROSELLÓ

Comportamiento del hongo nematófago P. Chlamydosporia en la rizosfera
J. G. MACIÁ-VICENTE, E. MONFORT-PRIETO, J. SALINAS-CALVETE, L.V. LÓPEZ-LLORCA

La posible aportación de los modelos fenológicos en el biocontrol del piojo rojo de California en los huertos de cítricos
FERDINANDO BALDACCHINO, S. ARPAIA, M. ANTONIETTA CARBONI

Minotetrastichus ecus y Closterocerus trifasciatus dos parasitoides importantes de Cameraria ohridella
DANIELA LUPI, COSTANZA JUCKER

Control biológico de la cochinilla roja de la palmera, Phoenicococcus marlatti Cockerell (Homoptera: Phoenicococcidae), mediante la suelta masiva del coccinélido Rhyzobius lophanthae Blaisdell (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)
S. GÓMEZ, L. IBORRA FERRÁNDEZ

Presente y futuro de los composts como biopesticidas en el control biológico de enfermedades de plantas
J.A. PASCUAL, M. ROS, C. GARCÍA, T. HERNÁNDEZ, J.L. MORENO

Estrategias de Control Integrado de Agriotes spp. (O. Coleoptera, F. Elateridae) en el cultivo de la patata
A. RUÍZ DE AZÚA, A. GOLDARAZENA, A. ORTIZ, J. PASCUALENA

Aplicación del método de confusión sexual contra el agusanado (Cydia pomonella L.) en una plantación de peral en agricultura ecológica en las Vegas del Guadiana (Extremadura)
J.I. DE LA CRUZ, A. GUISADO, M.A. MARTÍNEZ, J. REYES, M.A. GALERA, J.A. GARCÍA, L. GARCÍA, R. GARCÍA, V. GARLITOS, J.L. MUÑOZ, M. TORRES

Control biológico e integrado de las enfermedades de postcosecha en la zona del empaquetado de la línea de confección: ensayos en cítricos
GIOVANNI ARRAS, ANTONIO PETRETTO

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